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Mughal Empire List

Mughal Empire List
By prakash
Published on November 24, 2022

Looking for Mughal Empire List of India? Read our article and get to know about various Mughal emperors in India.

A great deal of the 16th century and the first half of the 18th century witnessed the Mughal Empire enjoying its greatest period of dominance over the Indian subcontinent, and it collected vast amounts of manpower and money.

If we talk about the Mughal empire at its height, it was the largest and most powerful empire in the world.

In terms of the Mughal dynasty's best-known members, you can look at its founder, Babur, and a few of his heirs including Humayun, Akbar, Jahangir, Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb.

The glories of the empire are inextricably linked to the examples of military, artistic, and political brilliance that have flowed from each of these six emperors, known collectively as the Great Mughals.

Mughal Empire List of India - Name, Reign & Description


Born Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur in 1483 in Andijan, part of the Timurid Empire, he was one of the founders of the monarchy known as the Mughal Kingdom or Empire.

It is believed that the name Genghis Khan comes from Genghis Khan, Genghis's grandfather, who was the ruler of Kabul, Samarqand, and Ferghana before they became a part of India.

As early as the 15th century, Babur came to India to establish his rule over the Punjab State, but he soon decided to gain control over India as a whole. During that time, the Indian Subcontinent was ruled by the Lodi Dynasty.

After winning the First Battle of Panipat against Ibrahim Lodi in 1526, he took the Second Battle of Panipat. Eventually the Mughal empire of India came to be formed as a result of this, and the Delhi Sultanate was dissolved.

Rule Start and End: 1526 to 1530
Famous Battle: Battle of Chanderi, Battle of Khanwa
Number of Sons and Name: 18 children. 

  • Fakhr-un-Nissa Begum
  • Hindal Mirza
  • Humayun
  • Gulbadan Begum
  • Masuma Sultan Begum
  • Askari Mirza
  • Gulchehra Begum
  • Kamran Mirza


It should be noted that he was the second Mughal Emperor at Bahur after his father. In 1508, Nasir-ud-Din Muhammad was born in Kabul to Maham Begum as Nasir-ud-Din Muhammad.

He became the Emperor of the Mughal Empire in 1530 and he ruled for 15 years, during which he was exiled for 15 years.

Sultan Bahadur of Gujarat was after him from the start and Sher Shah Suri and the Sultan of Gujarat followed him subsequently.

Chausa was a battle fought between the armies of Suri and Humayun between 1939-1943. In addition to that, Humayun agreed to overrule Suri as the province minister of Bengal and Bihar, an action which Suri approved.

It is nevertheless true that Humayun lost Suri at the Battle of Kannauj. The establishment of the Sur Empire will mark the beginning of Humayun's exile and the end of his reign.

As a result of Suri's and his son's deaths in 1554, Humanyun looked to reclaim his empire and to retain it. The first battle of Sirhind was won by him and a large army led by Bairam Khan.

As a matter of fact, Bega Begum was his chief consort and he was succeeded by Akbar. A tomb honouring him in Delhi is Humayun's Tomb, built in 1556 to commemorate his death.

Rule Start and End:
I- 1530–1540, II – 1555–1556

Famous Battle: Battle of Chausa

Number of Sons and Name: 11 children. 

  • Al-aman Mirza
  • Bakshi Banu Begum
  • Aqiqa Sultan Begum
  • Mirza Muhammad Hakim
  • Bakht-un-Nissa Begum
  • Jahan Sultan Begum
  • Farrukh-Fal Mirza
  • Amina Banu Begum
  • Ibrahim Sultan Mirza
  • Sakina Banu Begum
  • Akbar


The greatest of all the Mughal emperors was often considered to have been Humayun's son, Akbar (reigned 1556-1605). The kingdom of Akbar when he came to the throne had shrunk much from its former size.

It could not extend beyond the province of Punjab and the area around Delhi.

As a result of these military campaigns, he was pushed to the limit of his empire, and in some respects, the Rajputs were some of his toughest opponents, fierce warriors who controlled it then, Rajputna (now Rajasthan).

As a rule, the Rajputs' main weakness was their fierce rivalry with one another, which led to their division. Akbar, as a result of this, was able to deal with Rajput chiefs individually rather than having to confront them as an entire army.

His remaining Rajput enemies soon bowed to his will and fell quickly before him along with the fortress of Chittor (now Chittorgarh).

Rule Start and End: 1556–1605

Famous Battle: Battle of Haldighati

Number of Sons and Name: 8 children. 

  • Hassan Mirza
  • Aram Banu Begum
  • Shahzada Khanam
  • Hussain Mirza
  • Shakr-un-Nissa Begum
  • Daniyal Mirza
  • Murad Mirza
  • Jahangir


Generally speaking, Shah Jahangir (born Salim) is regarded as the most famous name of the two Shahs of Iran. He was, in addition to being the nephew of Panini, the successor of Akbar, son of Akbar and father of Jahangir.

The throne was so desperately in need of a king that Jahangir rallied a small revolt in 1599, declaring independence from his father and calling for independence.

Quite a bit later on he took things a step further by arranging for the assassination of Abu al-Fazl, one of his father's closest friends and advisers.

Although these undesirable events have occurred during the reign of Akbar, they are not likely to influence the succession of Akbar because he had only a small pool of possible successors before he passed away in 1605, as both of Jahangir's youngest brothers had already died from alcoholism.

So it is no surprise that before he died in 1605, Akbar appointed Jahangir to succeed him. With an empire that was stable and wealthy at the time of Jahangir's accession, there was plenty of time for him to pursue other things.

As befitted the Mughal tradition, some of the finest miniature paintings in the history of Mughal arts have been created in his palace workshops because of the patronage he has shown to them.

During his lifetime, there was also evidence of excessive consumption of alcohol and opium, to the point that he employed a special servant whose sole function was to regulate his supply of intoxicating drugs.

Rule Start and End: 1628–1658

Famous Battle: Battle of Dewair

Number of Sons and Name: 13 children. 

  • Sultan-un-Nissa Begum
  • Shahryar Mirza
  • Parviz Mirza
  • Khusrau Mirza
  • Shah Jahan
  • Luzzat-un-Nissa Begum
  • Bahar Banu Begum

Shah Jahan

His father Jahangir left him a relatively stable and prosperous empire, which was bestowed on him by his grandfather Shihab al-Din Muhammad Khurram (birth name Shihab al-Din Muhammad Khurram).

The expansion of the Mughal Empire to the Deccan states (states on the Indian peninsula) was somewhat successful for him, but he is today regarded as one of the most important builders in history.

In 1632, after the death of his third wife, Mumtaz Mahal, during the birth of their 14th child, he commissioned the creation of his most famous structure, the Taj Mahal.

Mausoleum is considered to be one of the best known buildings on the planet today. It is more than twenty years old and is the largest mausoleum complex on the planet.

During Shah Jahan's reign, the murky world of mughal family politics remained as confusing as ever. A war of succession broke out between Shah Jahan's sons when he fell ill in 1657.

In 1658, Aurangzeb, his son, assumed the title of emperor, and detained his father, until he died in 1666.

Rule Start and End: 1628–1658

Famous Battle: Battle of Samugarh

Number of Sons and Name:
16 children. 

  • Parhez Banu Begum
  • Alamgir
  • Hur-ul-Nisa Begum
  • Shah Shuja
  • Dara Shikoh
  • Jahanara Begum
  • Roshanara Begum
  • Gauhar Ara Begum
  • Murad Bakhsh


A highly qualified soldier and administrator, Aurangzeb avoided both the decadence and substance abuse problems that plagued several of his predecessors even though he set high standards for himself in all aspects of his life.

The empire was ruled by him at its widest geographical extent, extending its southern border all the way to the city of Tanjore at the end of the Deccan peninsula. It was also now that the empire was beginning to decline under his rule.

 A more strict orthodox Muslim than his predecessors, he ended many of the religious tolerance policies that had contributed to the creation of harmony and pluralism throughout society.

During his reign, as events within the empire progressed, it became more and more chaotic. This was due to the tensions between religions and the heavy taxes imposed on agriculture.

The military and economic resources of the imperial government took a major hit due to the suppression of most of these uprisings by Aurangzeb.

Even though the empire was still intact at the time Aurangzeb died at the age of seventy in 1707.

It is worth noting that his successors suffered from the tensions that arose during his almost 5-decade reign, leading to the gradual breakdown of the empire in the century to come.

Rule Start and End: 1658–1707

Famous Battle: Battle of Khajwa

Number of Sons and Name:
10 children. 

  • Zeb-un-Nisa
  • Kam Bakhsh
  • Zinat-un-Nisa
  • Azam Shah
  • Badr-un-Nisa
  • Zubdat-un-Nisa
  • Mihr-un-Nisa
  • Muhammad Sultan
  • Muhammad Akbar
  • Shah Alam I

Bahadur Shah I

As the seventh Mughal Emperor, he was the leader of the Mughal Empire. During the 1640s in Burhanpur, Muhammad Mu'azzam, the son of Nawab Bai, was born as Bahadur Shah 1.

As the emperor from 1707 to 1712, Muhammad Mu'azzam became the ruler of the state. As a result, he was crowned emperor at the Battle of Jajau, during which he defeated his elder brother Muhammad Azam Shah.

During the reign of the first emperor, the dynasty began to crumble from the very start. After Bahadur Shah's accession to power, he lost Amber, Jodhpur, and Udaipur during the first year of his reign.

Kam Bakhsh, a major opposition leader, was also a major problem in the court. Then there are external factors as well, for example - the Sikh rebellion and the Khutba controversy.

During his reign, Nur-un-Nissa Begum, his chief consort, was a queen, and Jahandar Shah, his successor. His death was in 1712.

Rule Start and End: 1707–1712

Famous Battle: Battle of Jajau

Number of Sons and Name: 5 children. 

  • Jahandar Shah
  • Rafi-ush-Shan
  • Izz-ud-Din Mirza
  • Rafi-us-Qadr
  • Humayun Mirza
  • Azim-ush-Shan
  • Jahan Shah
  • Daulat Afza Mirza
  • Dahr Afruz Banu Begum

Jahandar Shah

In the Mughal Dynasty, he was known as the eighth emperor. The birth of Jahandar Shah in 1661 in Deccan states was attributed to Mirza Muhammad Mu'izz-ud-Din, the son of Nizam Bai.

As emperor from 1712 to 1713, he was only in power for a short period of time. A controversy has arisen over his marriage to a dancing girl - Lal Kunwar.

The Ijara System was also encouraged by him. Agra's Battle of Agra in 1713 was won by his nephew Farrukhsiyar and he was defeated. His last days were spent in Delhi after he died of a heart attack a month after the battle.

Rule Start and End: 1712–1713

Famous Battle: Battle of Agra

Number of Sons and Name: 8 children. 

  • Izz-ud-Din Mirza
  • Alamgir II
  • Azz-ud-din Mirza
  • Rabi Begum
  • Iffat Ara Begum


Emperor of the Mughal Dynasty, he was the ninth. A parable of Farrukhsiyar, again a tale told through the eyes of his cousins explains the subsequent life of this theocrat.

Merely, Farrukhsiyar dynasty was difficult to maintain. It was his son who had been adopted by Azimush-Shan. Azimush-Shan became emperor in 1713 and ruled the country until 1719.

This was due to Farrukhsiyar allowing British goods to be traded freely in Bengal. Taking his brother Sayyid as a help, he defeated Jahandar Shah, but later on, the two brothers joined the Marathas to challenge the Mughals' power.

The chief consort of Muhammad Ali Shah was Gauhar-un-Nissa Begum, and Rafi al-Darajat was his successor. In 1719, he died in Delhi.

Rule Start and End: 1713–1719

Famous Battle: Battle of Gurdas Nangal

Number of Sons and Name: 1 child. 

  • Badshah Begum

Rafi Ul-Darjat

It was he who was the 10th Mughal Emperor and he was born in 1699, came from an aristocratic family and was a nephew of Azim ush Shan and Rafi-Us-Shan.

As a result of his victory over Furrukhsiyar, he was proclaimed Badshah by the Syed Brothers on 28 February 1719. Agra, 13 June 1719 was the place where Rafiul-Darjat died of lung cancer or was murdered by someone.

The relics of Khawaja Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki, the famous Sufi saint in Delhi, were interred at the shrine of this saint in Mehrauli.

Rule Start and End: 28 February – 6 June 1719

Famous Battle: No Battle

Number of Sons and Name: Not known

Rafi Ud-Daulat

It was due to the death of his younger brother Rafi ud-Darajat from tuberculosis that Shah Jahan II ascended the throne on 6 June 1719.

It was held at the Red Fort's Diwan-i-Khas, where he was crowned. As a result, he was given the title Shah Jahan II.

In the same way that his younger brother, Shah Jahan II, was chosen by the benazbah Sayyid brothers and had no authority in practical matters, he, too, was chosen by the annals of fate.

He was read out for the first time in the khutbah on the 13th of June. It was on 11 June when he made his first appearance in the Diwan-i-Aam.

A Sayyid brother was not to be permitted to meet any noble or attend any jummah without the presence of another Sayyid brother.

Rule Start and End: 6 June – 17 September 1719

Famous Battle: No Battle

Number of Sons and Name: Not known

Muhammad Shah

His reign was that of the twelfth Emperor of Mughal Dynasty in India. As the emperor prior to him, Rafi ud-Darajat served for just a few months in the role of the 10th and 11th Emperor before him.

It is said that Nasir-ud-din Muhammed Shah was born in 1702 in Ghazana as Nasir-ud-Din Muhammed Shah. In addition to being the son of Bahadur Shah, he was the son of Jahan Shah, the fourth son.

By enlisting the help of the Sayyid brothers, he was able to claim the throne as his own. By enlisting the help of the Sayyid brothers, he was able to claim the throne as his own.

Shah Mohd Shah had a great love for art and literature. He was one of the most important figures in the development of Urdu literature during his rule.

During his reign, the decay of the dynasty was already accelerating, but he increased the pace to an alarming degree. During the Mughal-Maratha wars, he experienced multiple defeats and lost many of his provinces such as Orissa.

He lost the Karnal 1739 battle between Mughals and Nader Shah. Nader Shah was the victor of that battle. He captured most of the north of India, including Delhi, during that battle.

The remaining remnants of the empire were destroyed by Nader. During his gradual annexation of Mughal territory, he also landed in Jalalabad, Lahore, and Sirhind.

Despite his inability to recapture his states, Muhammad Shah managed to be in power until 1748. The wife of his eldest son Ahmed Shah Bahadur was Badshah Begum and he was succeeded by his eldest son Ahmed Shah Bahadur.

Muhammad Shah Bahadur died in 1748 after being killed at Ambur.

Rule Start and End: 1719–1720, 1720–1748

Famous Battle: Battle of Ambur

Number of Sons and Name: 8 children. 

  • Taj Mahmud Mirza
  • Ahmad Shah Bahadur
  • Hazrat Begum
  • Shaharyar Mirza

Ahmed Shah Bahadur

In terms of the Mughal Dynasty, he was the thirteenth emperor of the Mughals. As Mujahid-ud-Din Ahmad Shah Ghazi in Delhi, Ahmed Shah Bahadur was born as Ahmad Shah Ghazi in 1725.

Ahmed Shah Bahadur became the emperor in 1748 and was in power until 1754. Ahmed Shah Bahadur had a poor administration skill, leading to the collapse of his empire.

During his reign, Firoz Jung III rose to prominence. He lost a lot of lands, which included Gujarat. He also engaged in the Carnatic War against the French.

Alamgir II was then able to overthrow him in 1754 by a coup d'etat. Alamgir II ended up spending the rest of his life in jail.

Rule Start and End: 1748–1754

Famous Battle: The Battle of Manupur

Number of Sons and Name: 1 child. 

  • Mahmud Shah Bahadur

Alamgir II

The Emperor of the Mughal Dynasty was the fourteenth so-called emperor of his line. During the reign of Alamgir, Aziz-ud-Din was born in Burhanpur as Aziz-ud-Din. In fact, he was the son of Jahandar Shah.

 The emperor of the time was the son of Jahandar Shah. He served until 1759. As he lacked administrative skills, he delegated his duties to his vizir Imad-ul-Mulk, who dealt with all matters on his behalf.

He remained in his presence for all of the seven years of the global war.

The expansion of the Maratha Empire during his reign was at its peak. He was succeeded by Shah Jahan III, who was assassinated by his vizir in 1759 due to disagreements regarding the succession of the dynasty.

Rule Start and End: 1754–1759

Famous Battle: Siege of Delhi

Number of Sons and Name: 1 child.

  • Shah Alam II

Shah Jahan III

The sixteenth Mughal Emperor, Shah Jahan III, was also known as Muhi-ul-millat. Although his reign was brief, he was indeed a great figure.

In addition to being the youngest son of Aurangzeb, he was the son of Muhi Um-Sunnat, the eldest son of Muhammad Kambakhsh, the youngest son of Aurangzeb.

As a result of the intricate arrangements in Delhi with the help of Imad-ul-Mulk, he was placed on the Mughal throne in December 1759. The Maratha chiefs deposed him later on in time.

Rule Start and End: 10 December 1759 – 10 October 1760

Famous Battle: No Famous Battle

Number of Sons and Name: 2 children.

  • Mirza Sa'adat Bakht Bahadur
  • Mirza Ikram Bahadur

Shah Alam II

A Mughal emperor, he was the sixteenth ruler of the empire. Before him, Shah Jahan III ruled for only one year before he was overthrown by the Marathas.

His birth name was Ali Gohar. In 1760, he was appointed emperor and ruled until 1788 when he died. Bengal, Odisha, and Bihar were reclaimed by him at the end of the Bengal War.

The East India Company and the Shah Alam II fought in the War of Buxar and the Shah Alam II lost the war. The Marathas took control of Delhi in 1788, ending the reign of Alam's regime.

 Since he was freed from the Marathas in 1803 by the East India Company, he became the first Mughal to receive a pension from that company. The next Mughal to receive such a pension was Bidar Bakht, who died in 1806.

Rule Start and End: 1760–1806

Famous Battle: Battle of Buxar

Number of Sons and Name: 3 children.

  • H.R.H. Muhammad Sulaiman Shikoh Shahzada Mirza Muhammad Sulaiman Shikoh Bahadur
  • Mirza Jawan Bakht
  • Akbar II

Akbar II

His reign was the 18th of the Mughal dynasty. In February of that year, Bidar Bakht succeeded Shah Alam. Mukundpur was the birthplace of Akbar II. His reign lasted from 1808 to 1837. During this time he was under British protection.

A large part of the empire was lost during his rule, and the Red Fort was all that remained of it. A large part of India was slowly lost to the British under his rule.

His eldest son Bahadur Shah succeeded him as his successor. He died in Delhi in 1837, after a brief illness.

Rule Start and End: 1806–1837

Famous Battle: Second Battle of Panipat

Number of Sons and Name: 10 children. 

  • Mirza Firuz Bakht
  • Mirza Jahan Khushru
  • Bahadur Shah II
  • Mirza Jahangir
  • Mirza Salim
  • Mirza Nali
  • Mirza Babur
  • Mirza Buland Bakht
  • Mirza Nazim Shah
  • Mirza Jahan Shah

Bahadur Shah II

During his reign, he was India's last Mughal Emperor. As Bahadur Shah Zafar, Bahadur Shah II was born in Shahjahanabad in 1775. From 1837 until 1857, he was the emperor of India. Delhi was his territory.

India was controlled by the British. He led a rebellion of 1857 to overthrow British rule, but the rebellion failed. He was eventually captured and eventually died in 1861.

Upon his death, the East India Company began to dominate the domain and subcultural subcontinent of India.

Rule Start and End: 1837–1857

Famous Battle: Indian Rebellion of 1857

Number of Sons and Name: 13 children. 

  • Mirza Dara Bakht,
  • Mirza Khizr Sultan,
  • Mirza Mughal,
  • Mirza Shah Abbas,
  • Mirza Jawan Bakht,
  • Mirza Abu Bakr
  • Mirza Fath-ul-Mulk Bahadur,


Mughal Empire is an important part of the history of India, which serves a very important purpose for the preparation of IAS Exams and future career advancement.

The purpose of this article is to present a detailed presentation of all the Mughal Emperors of India - their reign, achievements and victories, monuments, and personal lives. A

ll the facts you need to know about the Mughal emperors, going back to the 15th century and all the way to the 18th century, are explained in the accompanying article.

As per my understanding, the content of this article is relevant for competitive exams such as UPSC, RRB, SSC, and etc.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. Who is 7 Mughal Empire?

375 years ago, on October 14, 1643, Bahadur Shah I, the seventh Mughal Emperor, was born in India. Nawab Bai was the Muslim Rajput husband of Bahadur Shah I, the third son of Aurangzeb.

2. How many Mughal emperors were there?

In thirteen generations of the Mughal Empire, there were nineteen emperors. Emperors of the Mughal Empire during its 331-year history were all members of the same house, the Timurid house.

3. Is Mughal family still alive?

There is no longer a Mughal Family. At Khooni Darwaza, also known as Lal Darwaza in Delhi, the last Mughal ruler Bahadur Shah Zafar (as well as his two sons and grandson) were executed after they were sent into exile to Rangoon.


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About the Author

Prakash is a passionate individual who loves to live his life up to full potential. An avid traveller and reader, he loves to explore various places and has quite a knack for research. He is intuitive by nature and possess the ability to handle multiple informational resources at one time. Prakash is dedicated and sincere in approach and he loves networking with like-minded people.

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